On a spectrum of hostility towards irregular migrants, South Africa ranks on top, Germany in the middle and Canada at the bottom. South African xenophobic violence by impoverished slum dwellers is directed against fellow Africans. Why would a society that liberated itself in the name of human rights turn against people who escaped human rights violations or unlivable conditions at home? What happened to the expected African solidarity? Why do former victims become victimizers? “Imagined Liberation” asks what xenophobic societies can learn from other immigrant societies which avoided the backlash against multiculturalism in Europe.